Company name - BMW - stands for "Bavarian Motor Works» (Bayerische MotorenWerke). This automobile company that specializes in the production of motorcycles, cars, sports cars, all-terrain vehicles. BMW headquarters in the capital of Bavaria, Munich. Company logo hints at past and present aviation companies - a white propeller on a background of blue sky. In addition, blue and white - the colors of Bavaria official stamp.
The history of BMW begins with two small aircraft engine companies, created respectively by Carl Rapp (Karl Rapp) and Gustav Otto (Gustav Otto) (son of Nikolaus August Otto, the inventor of the internal combustion engine) in 1913 in Munich. The next year starts the First World War and the German state begins to experience a greater need for aircraft engines. This moves the two designers together in one plant. In July 1917 the plant records the name Bayerische MotorenWerke, and BMW brand come to life. But with the end of the war Rapp and Otto expects full decline due to the defeat of Germany and given her a ban on the production of aircraft engines. Nevertheless, enterprising leaders BMW quickly find another niche, which can be useful ability to produce their powerful engines. First, begin to produce motorcycle engines, and then the plant has been held for a full production cycle and motorcycle assembly.
The first of them - R32 - appears in 1923, and immediately finds a high reputation for its speed and reliability. In the field of the production of the actual engine business is also waiting for an unprecedented success since the BMW engine equipped aircraft, with the pilot Franz dimers, in 1919 set a world record altitude - 9760 meters. In addition, the company enters into a secret pact with the Soviet Union to supply her engines, and aircraft Union also set records.
1928 was marked with the acquisition of new plants in Eisenach, Thuringia, and with it the license to produce subcompact Dixi. Actually Dixi is the first car BMW. Its low price and economy in the war-ravaged provides financial crisis and Germany's high sales. Thank BMW and its engines is growing due to new developments, such as Wolfgang von Gronau flight across the Atlantic Ocean to the seaplane and the world speed record for motorcycles, supplied by Ernst Henne on the R12, equipped with the latest design solutions BMW.
The gap between the two World Wars in the history of BMW is also marked by the models 303 and 328. The latter is a sports car, which left far behind its competitors in the same niche and was the repeated winner of various racing competitions. During these years, it has formed a concept, which the company should still - "car driver", as opposed to mersedesovskoy "car for passengers."
World War II, like its predecessor, forcing the company to switch to the production of aircraft engines, including in connection with the ban on selling cars to private individuals. In this vein, BMW manages the world's first to begin production of jet engines, as well as to carry out design work on rocket engines. But with the end of the war the firm is on the verge of collapse as part of its plant is in the Soviet occupation zone, and destroy and dismantle the equipment for repair. Release of the war engines halloo to one another is now a three-year ban on production.
Then BMW executives, Otto Rapp and start all over again. Appears R24, a motorcycle, followed by passenger car model 501, which, however, did not bring big profits. By 1955 available models R50 and R51 motorcycles and leaves an interesting project - the Isetta minicar, which is a strange hybrid of a motorcycle and a car with three wheels (two front and one rear) and doors opening onto the front of the chassis.
Of course, the Isetta was extremely cheap, but driving in some countries was sufficient availability of motorcycle rights, so devastated by war reparations and Germany cars are relished and expensive.
But the fashion for cars is changing, and once again you can not guess the preferences of the public, the company makes a marketing mistake, and BMW is on the verge of bankruptcy. This raises the question of whether to sell the company Mercedes companies, but small local shareholders and dealers prevent this, and the transaction fails. Then the company is restructuring its capital and thus kept afloat. The subsequent history of the company - a story of steady growth and original technical solutions. Among them consistently include: anti-lock braking system, electronic engine management, the introduction of Turbine Technologies in the automotive industry ...
In 1969, production of motorcycles in Berlin translated. BMW establishes a headquarters building, as well as a research center, control and test site. In the 70s appeared the first model of well-known series BMW - 3 Series, 5 Series, 6 Series, 7 Series. 1983 - the year of victory in the BMW racing "Formula 1".
In 1990, year of the reunification of the two Germanys, BMW returns to the production of aircraft engines, and the first is BR-700 motor in a row. In addition, the company actively cooperates with other automakers.
In 1994 he bought Rover Group Industrial Group, together with its largest in the UK for the production of complex marks Rover, Land Rover and MG. In 1998 it acquired the British company "Rolls-Royce". The company also does not forget about the safety of their customers, so since 1995 all cars without exception equipped with airbags for the driver and front passenger, and engine anti-theft lock.
The modern BMW - is a thriving concern, increasing their profits every year. This is one of the few firms engaged exclusively manual assembly, without robots, only post-production computer diagnostics. The company has five plants in Germany and twenty-two subsidiaries throughout the world.