Nissan

  Nissan has formed as a result of the gradual merging of several automakers. It all started in 1914 when he worked in the company Kwaishinsha Co. Kenjiro Den (Kenjiro Den), Rokuro Aoyama (Rokuro Aoyama) and Meytaro Takeuchi (Meitaro Takeuchi) designed a car equipped with a two-cylinder engine producing 10 hp and called it "DAT" - the first letters of their names. At the same time the word "dat" means "lively, agile" in Japanese. In 1915 he was released model "DAT-31", and in 1916 - "DAT-41." In the same year, after the merger with Lila, the production moved from Tokyo (where it was before) to Osaka. At this time, the company mainly engaged in truck production.

  Another company, which became one of the "parents» Nissan, was founded in 1919 Jitsuyo Jidosha Co., Ltd. It produced developed by American engineer William Gorham three-wheeled vehicles, imported from the United States, spare parts and tools for the production of cars and was at that time one of the most advanced in the field of auto industry. In 1926 it merged with Kwaishinsha Co. Formed a company called Dat Jidosha Seizo Co., in 1931, the company cooperated with Tobata Casting, formed Yoshisuke Aikawa (Yoshisuke Aikawa) and became known as the Tobata / Imono. It was decided to again begin producing passenger cars; appeared Datson model (it is translated as "son of Date"), then Datsun ( "son" altered to "sun" - «Sun», the national symbol of Japan). By the way, under the Datsun brand of cars produced until 1983.

  In 1933 Tobata / Imono merged with another manufacturer - Nihon Sanyo, and was born the Company Jidosha Seizo Co., Ltd. Aikawa became its president. At that time, he dreamed that the company will produce 10-15 thousand cars per year and intended to realize their dreams in life. In 1934 Jidosha Seizo renamed in Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. The construction of the plant in Yokohama, with the first cars Datsun brand is exported to Asia and Central and South America parties, reaching 44 units. And in 1935, the production line at Yokohama is coming off the first car Datsun 14 Sedan. The hood of the car was decorated with the figure of a rabbit jumping - it symbolized the high (at the time) high-speed characteristics of the car. In 1936, the company buys the equipment from the company Graham and in the next, in 1937 it develops the assembly of vehicles. At the same time the plant in Yokohama, was released on 10 000th car.

  However, it is approaching the Second World War; production gradually shifted from small passenger cars to military trucks, and during the war, Nissan also produces engines for military aircraft and motor boats. In 1943 the plant was completed Yoshivara, and once again the company changed its name - this time on a Nissan Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Old name back in 1949). In 1945, the company resumed production of trucks, but, although the plant Yokohama escaped destruction during the air bombing, more than half of production facilities were requisitioned by the occupation authorities. This situation lasted for about 10 years after the war. In this difficult period, many agencies for the sale of cars, had previously worked with Nissan, Toyota went to - after the collapse of Japan Motor Vehicle Distribution Co., during the war, the former monopolist in the field of transport distribution. However, in 1947, it was resumed the production of passenger cars Datsun.

  In 1950 Nissan acquires stake in the company Minsei Diesel Motor Co., Ltd. (At this time Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd.), and begins to develop and produce cars for overseas markets. 1951 marked the advent of all-wheel drive SUV Patrol, whose history is still ongoing and is characterized by its numerous victories in rally-raids. In 1952, to fill the vacuum technology of the war years, the Nissan signs a technology agreement with the British company Austin Motor Co., Ltd, and a year later, in 1953, produces a first conveyor Austin car. In the same 1953 Nissan carries a 100-day strike of its workers to form a trade union of the company. 1955 was the beginning of serial production models of Datsun 110 and 120, and in 1958 started exporting cars to the United States. Then two cars Datsun 210 performed at the rally of Australia and took first place there. A year later, production began on the first manufacturing plant abroad - in Taiwan and was put into production model Bluebird.

  The following year, 1960, came the model Cedric. Along with Bluebird she won the affection of Japanese buyers and accelerated the pace of motorization in Japan. At the same time was established Nissan Motor Corporation in the United States, the Nissan won the prize Deming, awarded for excellence in the organization of production, and under the Datsun brand began producing pickups only for the domestic market and some models for export. 1961 was the year when Nissan ranked first in terms of exports to the US and formed the company Nissan Mexicana, SA de CV (the production of it started in 1966). In 1962, it completed construction of the Oppama plant, and in 1965 - Zama plant. A year later, Nissan merged with Prince Motors Company buys Murayama plant opens, Nissan Motor Co. in Australia; at the same time it makes its debut model Sunny, symbolizing an offensive period of rapid growth in the production of small cars, and in the range of Prince added models Skyline and Gloria. In 1968 he signed a business agreement with Fuji Heavy Industries, in 1969 produced a sports car Nissan / Datsun 240Z. This vehicle is designed for sale in the United States, and later adapted to the European market, it has become a market leader in its class and marked the beginning of Nissan's popularity around the world. The result of the 60-ies became Nissan access to the second place (after Toyota) among Japanese automakers, the introduction of the company to foreign markets (in 1969, total exports exceeded 1,000,000 units), its active growth and expansion of the model range.

  70s marked a Nissan for the establishment of production facilities abroad, developments in the field of jet and marine engines. The growth of motorization has led to an increase in the number of accidents and the need to address the problem of air pollution. In 1971, Nissan developed its first experimental safety vehicle (ESV - Experimental Safety Vehicle) and has since implemented in their vehicles a huge number of security-related technologies. In addition, the developed technologies reduce harmful substances in exhaust - according to the accepted standards at the time. 1972 was marked by the release of the 10 millionth vehicle at Nissan plants in Japan, and 1973 - the opening of the center for trade in spare parts Sagamihara. In the wake of the increasing popularity of Japanese cars after the energy crises of the 1970s model Sunny took first place in the US Environmental Protection Agency tests the environment, becoming the most economical car and gained immense popularity in the United States. He sells it under the advertising slogan of "Datsun saves." In 1974, based Nissan Science Foundation, in 1975, opened another factory - Kyushu and Nissan car sales in Japan reached 10 million mark. In 1976, due to its own fleet of vehicles Nissan has become the largest exporter in the world, and the next year the total number of vehicles sold steps over 20 million. In 1979, Nissan Design International (NDI) has opened in the United States.

  In the 1980s, Nissan offers two strategic manufacturing bases overseas - in 1980 in the US (Nissan Motor Manufacturing Corp.), and in 1984 - in the United Kingdom (Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Limited). In 1981, it begins worldwide sales of cars under the Nissan brand as part of a new corporate program to promote the brand; produced the 30 millionth car; Nissan signed an agreement with Volkswagen for the production and sale of passenger cars in Japan; completed the construction of a technical center (Nissan Technical Center). In 1982, the Nissan Safari Rally wins for the fourth consecutive year, released one of the first wagon - the Prairie and announces a new trademark - the actual Nissan. Over the next 1983, all company cars are starting to be produced under the Nissan brand, with the exception of a pickup truck. In the same year begins production Patrol (Safari) model Nissan plant in Spain and Datsun pickup truck in the US plant. There, in the United States, opens the company Nissan Research & Development, Inc. In 1984, through an agreement with Volkswagen, Nissan starts production of Santana models. Stating in 1986 the new corporate principles in 1987 Nissan wins the competition "Japanese Car of the Year" - or rather, win his model Pulsar, EXA, Langley and Liberta Villa. At the same time, Nissan exports passes the 20 million mark. In the same year he published a model Be-1, and the company Daewoo Motor starts production and sale Vanette trucks in South Korea. In 1988 in Europe it was a model Maxima, Japan - Cima, and Silvia Q's model wins "Good Design Grand Prize". In Silvia next year received the title of the winner of the contest "Japanese Car of the Year."

  In the 90s began the presentation of the new model of the middle class - Primera (1990). In the same year model 300ZX was the best import car in the United States. At this time, the total number of produced vehicles exceeded 50 million (including 10 million in only one plant - Zama), and in conjunction with Canon, Sony, NEC and Hitachi design Tokyo Design Network was founded (TDN). In the United States opened the company Nissan North America, performing the functions of headquarters operations in the US market. And in 1991, Nissan is reorganizing its parts suppliers association and founded a new distributor in the UK - Nissan Motor (GB) Ltd. Due to the rapid growth in the field of automotive communication systems and information together with Nissan Hitachi founds Xanavi Informatics Corporation. A British Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. He begins to export its 5-door hatchback Primera UK to Japan. 1992 was the year of foundation of Hokkaido proving ground (it carried out tests with low temperatures). In the US market started the production of Altima models (Bluebird), minivan Quest (joint project with Ford), and the model Micra (March) will appear in the UK, which became in 1993 in Europe, Japan car of the year Car of the Year and won the RJC New contest prize Car of the Year in the same place.

  In the same 1993 for the European market begins the production of all-wheel drive model Terrano II. Nissan is expanding its presence in the market of China, Thailand and Taiwan. In South Korea in 1994, Nissan signed an agreement on joint production of passenger cars with the company Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and opened a regional office in Dubai - Nissan Middle East FZE. In the same year the presentation of the updated Maxima. The following year, began production Almera models, the Micra model begins to be delivered to Australia, Indonesia organized a joint venture between PT Ismac Nissan Manufacturing (together with Indomobil and Marubeni). In 1996, at the Iwaki plant celebrated the release of the 500,000th VQ series engine. In 1997, Nissan starts selling Primera and Bluebird models with CVT (Hyper CVT, continuously variable transmission), which allows increased fuel economy, as well as developing a hybrid vehicle HEV (hybrid electric vehicle); and in 1998 started manufacturing Presage model with a diesel engine, equipped with direct fuel injection.

  At this time Nissan owes creditors $ 40 billion. US dollars. To avoid financial collapse, Nissan in 1999, created an alliance with Renault, which bought nearly 40% of its shares. As a result of the global automotive market, a new alliance - Renault-Nissan. As a result of only 1999 Renault-Nissan Alliance has released about 4 million cars. In addition, Nissan has launched a program for drive-test on public roads Tino Hybrid models and started selling Cedric / Gloria models with automatic transmission, the new generation of "Extroid CVT", which was the world's first case of the installation of the variator on the rear-wheel cars with large engine displacement. Was read a new revival plan performance of the company. Exports of cars reaches 30 million units. In the UK, coming off the production line millionth Primera. Cedric / Gloria wins the prize "RJC New Car of the Year 1999-2000"; Extroid CVT receives the prize of "Technology of the Year" 1999-2000.

  In early 2000, it carried out the official release of Tino Hybrid and electric double Hypermini. Tino Hybrid starts to be sold over the Internet. QG18DE engines to be installed in the model Bluebird Sylphy, receives the award RJC the Technology of the Year. In California, sales begin Sentra car with ultra low content of harmful substances in the exhaust (super ultra low emission vehicle - SULEV). As part of the alliance with Renault announced a long-term strategy for the work on the common market of South America (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), and the Japanese Nissan dealers beginning to sell Renault cars. Announces the creation of the worldwide parent company - Global Nissan (GNX). In 2001, Nissan and Renault opens first joint plant in Brazil. Nissan begins construction of an assembly plant in Mississippi and launches drive tests Model Xterra FCV, running on hydrogen, on public roads in Sacramento. Car production at the plant stops Murayama. On the Paris-Dakar rally in first-class car takes Nissan Pathfinder.

  In 2002, Nissan increases its stake in Renault to 15%, and Renault in Nissan - to 44.4%. Nissan Altima was the car of the year in North America, it appeared Moco model, which Nissan entered the microcar market revival plan the company made during the year and declared a new three-year business plan - Nissan 180. At Nissan today is the second largest Japanese automaker and one of the leaders in the global auto industry, in addition to having their plants in Japan are many divisions and subsidiaries worldwide: in the USA, Europe, Australia, South America, Asia - only 17 countries.


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